醉酒

醉酒之意為飲酒無節制。《儒林外史》第一八回:「你既是生員,如何黑夜酗酒!帶著送在儒學去!」

對古老的以色列人而言,酒是一種來自上帝的禮物,同時在詩104:15記載其功用-悅人心。但若過度飲用,以至於醉酒,在兩約中在在地譴責這樣的行為。

在箴言中,智者警告好酒的人,必不富足(箴21:17;23:21),酒發紅,在杯中閃爍,你不得觀看,雖然下咽舒暢,終究是咬你如蛇,刺你如毒蛇;你眼必看見異怪的事,你心必發出乖謬的話,你必像躺在海中,或像臥在桅杆上。你必說:「人打我,我卻未受傷,人鞭打我,我竟不覺得,我幾時清醒,我仍去尋酒。」(箴23:31-35)醉酒不只讓人無法法成為神兒女,對於神的子民而言亦是不恰當的(羅13:13;彼前4:3;加5:21),對於那沉迷酒精的人們,禍患、憂愁、爭鬥、哀嘆也將臨到他們,使他們無故受傷、眼目紅赤。(箴23:29-30)

位居領導階級的人們亦應節制飲酒,即使尊如祭司和先知仍可能因酒搖搖晃晃,因濃酒東倒西歪,被酒所困,甚至錯解默示,謬行審判。(賽28:7)利幕伊勒王的母親教導他君王不能喝酒,恐怕喝了就忘記律例,顛倒一切困苦人的是非。(箴31:4-5)論及教會中長老或是執事的選任,酗酒是條件之一(提後3:3,8;多1:7)。

諾亞羅得是舊約中被上帝稱為義人但因為醉酒而遭兒女性侵的兩位父親。(創9:20-24;19:32-36)猶大亞撒二十七年,巴沙的兒子以拉,當他在得撒家宰亞雜家裡喝醉的時候,管理他一半戰車的臣子心利進去殺了他,篡了他的位。(王上16:8-10)亞哈隨魯王曾因醉酒而請瓦實提王后到王面前,但瓦實提不肯遵太監所傳王命而來,於是王甚發怒。波斯亞哈隨魯是當日是上最大帝國的君王,權力與財富堪稱無匹,但也是虛榮心極大、喜怒無常,且非常剛愎狂傲的一個人,在無人敢拂其意的形勢下,王后瓦實提卻敢於抗命,因而貶入冷宮,被黜時是主前483年的事,她很可能就是歷史上著名波斯王后亞默斯提絲,她因為不順服而遭貶,以斯帖以順服而入主後宮,成為君王信任得以挽救其民族命運的女子,但在瓦實提的兒子亞達薛西繼承王位後,她東山復起,影響朝政。

對於酒的正面評價,利慕伊勒王母親建議將亡的人或是苦心的人可以喝濃酒、淡酒,原因是酒將使他們忘記他們的貧窮以及苦楚。

在結23:33,醉酒一詞被象徵性地描述當時耶路撒冷對上主的不忠心,使醉酒不再是一個人的失態,「喝…杯」代表受審判,意思說猶大國也要受到以色列國同樣的審判。

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光[黑暗] Light [Darkness]

在聖經中光明與黑暗二字多是按象徵的意義而用。比如,當我們讀到,「上帝就是光,在祂毫無黑暗」的時候,我們便知道這是一種象徵的說法-一種自然而有幫助的象徵;其意義乃是說,上帝是全善的,並無絲毫邪惡。這一點乃是約一(1:5以下)的作者所要倡言。然而這幾個字照字面的意義來說,也是這作者認為正確的;上帝的本質就是光。所以經上說,天上的城-新耶路撒冷-那裏「不再有黑夜,他們也不用燈光日光,因為主上帝要光照他們」(啟22:5)。事實上,對於光與黑暗,以及相關聯的字如晝與夜不可能將其屬字面和象徵的意義清楚地區別出來。當聖保羅寫道:「那吩咐光從黑暗裡照出來的上帝,已經照在我們心裏,叫我們得知上帝榮耀的光,顯在耶穌基督的面上」(林後4:6),因他說,「叫我們得知上帝榮耀的光」這句話,便把這區別清楚地劃分出來;可是在路2:9說,「主的榮光四面照著他們」,這裏「主的榮光」是被認為肉眼所能看見的光。同樣,在太8:12;22:13;25:30諸節中所說,「外邊的黑暗裏」和彼後2:17;猶13節,「黑黑的幽暗」,卻有屬字面,又有象徵的含意。

在舊約中當光與黑暗用作象徵的說法時,常有興旺快樂和苦難憂傷之意,例如:「猶太人有光榮歡喜快樂而得尊貴」(斯8:16);又「耶和華的日子,不是黑暗沒有光明麼,不是幽暗毫無光輝麼?」(摩5:20);又「我是耶和華,在我以外沒有別神。我造光,又造暗,我施平安,又降災禍,造作這一切的是我耶和華」(賽45:6-7)。又在其他的經文中黑暗含有邪惡之意(參箴2:13,「那等人捨棄真正的路,行走黑暗的道」),可是以光象徵的例子是無法尋得的。在新約中光與黑暗往往有象徵之意,須特別參看林後6:14:「義和不義有甚麼相交呢?光明和黑暗有甚麼相通呢?基督和彼列有甚麼相和呢?」然而,令人稀奇的,卻是無論在舊約或新約中,很少見到黑暗僅含無知,光明僅含知識之意的。在但5:11,14說但以理心中有「光明,又有聰明智慧」,這是指對神祕事的知識,乃凡人所不知的。聖保羅說,「此等不信之人,被這世界的神弄瞎了心眼,不叫基督榮耀福音的光照著他們;基督本是上帝的像」(林後4:4),這裏所用的「心眼」一字,翻譯為「思念」當更恰當。這裏大概事就理智而言。然而即在這裡也離道德上的麻木的意義不太遠了;參羅1:18以下。耶穌講論人心裡的光會成為黑暗,那難以明白的話(太6:23;路11:35)大概是指道德和宗教上的,而非指純粹理智上的「黑暗」的。

在第一世紀的宗教思想裡,上帝和一切與上帝有關係的事都被看為光,而邪惡的勢力和一切與邪惡有關的事都被看為黑暗。從古時太陽敬拜起,有很多影響成了這種思想,尤其是索羅亞斯德的宗教和柏拉圖的哲學。這思想的痕跡在保羅的書信中可以看見,例如西1:12-13,「感謝父,叫我們能與眾聖徒在光明中同得基業;他救了我們脫離黑暗的權勢」;又弗6:12,「管轄這幽暗世界的,以及天空屬靈氣的惡魔……」,意即,在基督之外,這世界是由屬靈氣的邪惡權勢所管轄。然而這思想在四福音書和約翰一書裡才有最清楚及最充分的陳述。上面已經提到,當約翰一書的作者說「神就是光」時,他是照字面的意義而說的。同時它也另含有一種更深切的意義,而非「上帝是全善」的意所能盡。這類的思想是不能以準確分析的,也不能用任何別的字來表達。而且所用的字在表達邏輯上也不常是一致的。例如,約翰一書說上帝就是光,而約翰福音卻說那在道裡面生的生命就是人的光(約1:4)。以後在福音書中基督宣稱祂自己就是世界的光(約8:12;9:5;請注意在11:9的「這世界的光」僅指眼所看的光)。但單從12:35所說:「光在你們中間,還有不多的時候,……你們應當趁著有光,信從這光」來看,好像這是說,基督僅在祂道成肉身的生命時才是世界的光-這當然不是福音作者的意義。

林鴻信老師曾對馬可福音的一段比喻做了有趣的註解-耶穌基督說過一個不義管家的比喻,最後以主人的立場「誇獎這不義的管家做事聰明;因為今世之子,在世事之上,較比光明之子更加聰明。」財產被不義管家轉移竊取的主人,深切感慨不義管家的「聰明」,因為屬於今世國度的「今世之子」在今世事務上總是比屬於上帝國度的「光明之子」更加聰明,顯然這帶有強烈反諷意涵。

在現實生活當中,明白利益左右人性的黑暗之子絕不會被思想所矇蔽,往往能夠徹底務實而勝過空想的光明之子。相較於黑暗之子對於人性的深刻體認,光明之子卻顯得過於天真而無知,這個強烈對比含有尼布爾恨鐵不成鋼的情懷。他認同光明之子的理想,卻反對光明之子的無知,而他反對黑暗之子的意圖,卻贊成黑暗之子對於人性的理解。

上帝的各種名稱

伊利和伊羅興(El, Elohim,參伯特利-神的殿,創28:17-19,創1:1,「起初神(即Elohim)創造天地」)。這兩個名字有甚麼意義呢?有的學者以為它們是從一個含有「強壯」意義的希伯來字而來,也有的說是從一個含有「偉大」意義的字,或從一個含有「約束」意義的動詞而來的。但這些意義的來源都不可考的。El和Elohim都是古時候很普遍的名稱,用來稱呼那被認為與某些地區或自然的事物,例如樹木、井、岩石等等相連的鬼魔。這許多不具體的鬼魔中,有些逐漸成了更具體化,成為某民族的護衛神。有一節含有暗示性的經文說,「他(雅各)在那裏築了一座壇,起名叫伊利以羅伊以色列」(創33:20)。這裡El不僅是一個普通名詞,乃成了一個固有名詞-以色列神的名字-同時也是那由石頭築城之壇的名字。

Elohim一個複數字,可視為一個用以著重神的抽象概念的複數。它可能用來指以色列人所敬拜的神或指亞斯他錄,即「西頓人的女神」(王上11:5),或指「別的神」(王上11:4)。總之,這是舊約中神的最普遍使用的字。摩西五經的各本源中有一個是稱為伊典(Elohistic Source).因為它專使用以羅興一名(代替耶和華)來指揮。祭典的作者,在創世紀一章敘述創造之王的時候,也使用了伊羅興這更廣泛更普通的名稱來指創造者。

耶和華乃是以色列人之神的特別名稱。祂被描寫為天神,一位雷轟、閃電的神(出19:16;20:18;王上18:38)。雷轟是他的聲音(出19:19;伯37:5;摩1:2),閃電是祂的箭(詩18:14;哈3:11)。祂把虹放在雲彩中作為祂立約的記號(創9:13)。與此相符的,是祂與山岳的關係。以色列人的仇敵說,「他們的神是山神」(王上20:23)。祂在阿拉伯沙漠的北部的西乃山上顯現,當以色列人在迦南打仗的時候(士5:4-5),神從那裏來幫助他們。此外,火焰是祂的表現,不僅在西乃山上,而且也在那在夜間引領以色列人出埃及的火柱中(出13:21)和荊棘裡(出3:2-3;參申33:16)。

因為耶和華之名-在Jau形式-為八世紀兩個亞蘭王的名字的一部分,故此這神似乎並不僅為以色列人所敬拜,也為亞蘭民族所敬拜。在大衛王的時期,崇拜耶和華是在基遍(撒下21:6,9;王上3:4)並在安放約櫃的示羅。然而在更早的時期,利未支派的祭司們祭祀神的中心似乎是在加低斯(民32:8等等)。根據傳統,摩西的岳父是基尼人(士1:16)或米甸人(出3:1),這可指名基尼人或米甸人或這兩族人都敬拜耶和華。

萬軍之耶和華Jahweh Zeba’oth或那更完全的稱呼,即耶和華萬軍之神,乃是耶和華的一個特別名稱。有人解釋「萬軍」,是指以色列的軍隊而言(參撒上4:4-5;撒下6:2;特別參撒上17:45),這樣就把耶和華看為戰神了。另外一種看法,是以萬軍指眾星宿(參士5:20)。但對第一種解釋可以提出反對理由說,撒上17:45是後來的經文,而神的「萬軍」一名稱,通常是沒有定冠詞的。對第二種觀點可已提出反對理由說,星宿通常是稱為天上的星軍(單數而非複數)。所以和勒斯耳(Hölscher)認為這名稱是指是指陪著耶和華的鬼魔之萬軍(也可稱他們為諸伊羅興)而言。和勒斯耳看到創32:1-2所說的可能是暗指陪上帝的:伊羅興「雅各仍舊行路,神(伊羅興)的使者遇見他。雅各看見他們就說,這是神的軍兵」。艾若德(Eichrodt)的看法與此相同。他以為「萬軍」就是地上和天上的眾生,他認為這種解釋與七十譯本把「萬軍之耶和華」譯為「全能的主」相符合。「萬軍之耶和華」一名在其存在的某階段中,也許是指以色列的軍隊,如在撒上17:45,或指眾星辰而言,但還是在它原來的意義喪失以後的事。可是,這稱呼並未記載在以色列軍隊戰績眾多的摩西五經,或約書亞記和士師記中,這足以作為反對把「萬軍」解為軍隊強有力的理由。此外,既然這稱呼主要的使用是在先知們所宣佈以耶和華為以色列和萬民之審判者那些神諭中,這說法就很難把耶和華指為以色列軍隊的指揮者。

巴力。希伯來人在迦南往下以後,他們生活的整個作風都起了一種基本的改變,因為他們必須向迦南人學習種田的技術,這樣便與草木之神的崇拜發生了密切的關係。曠野的神耶和華對田土的耕種、耕耘、撒種、橄欖和葡萄的栽培,各季農節的慶祝,並對那保證豐收的神之崇拜等等都毫無關係。為了土地的出產,百姓慣於向巴力獻上感謝、祈禱、和祭物。巴力就是管轄個別區域的神,每個巴力就是他所管轄一區的主宰(巴力等於所有者之意)。在何2:4-5我們看到一種流行的概念,就是以巴力為土地的主,他有使土地多產的功用。在這種情形之下,以色列人的宗教逐漸成為一種對耶和華和巴力的混合崇拜,這是自然的結果,並且隨著時間而進展,當耶和華接管了各種迦南的神龕時,這種混合的宗教就更加深刻更加顯明了。耶和華自己就被認為那些神龕的主或巴力,和一位草木的神。在一些希伯來個人的名稱上,例如耶路巴力(士6:32;7:1-2;撒下11:21,七十譯本),以實巴力麥力巴力,這些人名上的巴力就是指耶和華。當然以耶和華的住所是在曠野的西乃山上,而同時又以祂是住在迦南各地神龕的神或巴力,這不免有其矛盾之處,但這是由於以為耶和華的「名」或「面貌」臨格在各神龕而得到解釋。後來,在被擄以前的時期中,耶和華崇拜與迦南的宗教混雜起來以後-這種混合在許多方面是有益的,耶和華崇拜對巴力崇拜起了敵對(參王上18章),使耶和華崇拜建立在一種更純潔和更加屬靈的基礎上。例如先知何西阿抗議以巴力之名來稱耶和華(2:16)。

耶和華(JAH,Jahu( Jaho ) ,JEHOVAH)。舊約的希伯來原文是沒有母音的,所以神的名字是由四個子母音組合而成的,即JHWH。在被擄以前的時期中一神的思想發展起來,然後在第二以賽亞(賽40至55章)充分地表現出來,並在後來的數世紀中滲透一般人的腦海-這整個程序的一個結果乃是使耶和華的名字JHWH多少不用了。在民族主義的階段,多神的思想自然地認為上帝應當有祂自己的名字,好使祂與其祂諸神有別。可是當宗教達到一神論的時候,把一個名字給那唯一的神,便成了疑問。因此JHWH一名在約伯的詩和傳道書中都沒有;也從詩篇卷二和卷三中移去了。在希臘化後期,為了保護耶和華之名不受褻瀆之故,乃禁止人民使用它。大祭司在聖殿裡祝福或禱告的時候仍使用這名字,可是在會堂裡禱告或讀舊約時乃用主(Adhonai)一名。一般來說,七十譯本把JWAH譯成主(Kurios),把伊羅興譯成神(Theos)。將神的名字與主(Adhonai)密切聯繫的結果乃是,當馬索拉學士(主後第六到第七世紀時)把母音字加於希伯來字的子音字的原文中時,他們就把Adhonai的母音加於JWAH中,不過在特殊的情形下,把伊羅興的母音字加於JWAH中。

這個辦法產生了兩個顯著的結果:(一)JWAH的真正拼音法越來越無法知道了,幾乎完全失喪了;(二)在十六世紀的時候(約一五二零年)基督教的神學家-並非沒有學者的反對-把Adhonai的母音字母和JWAH的子音字母聯合起來而成為Jahovah即耶和華。這純粹是一個假想的名字,由四個世紀的應用而成為神聖的了。然而神的名字讀為亞畏(Jahweh),有特別好的證據,因為它是根據於那由提阿多熱托所傳下來的遺傳,說撒瑪利亞人把這名字讀為Iabe,並根據亞力山太革利免所著「四個字母所組成的神祕名字」把它寫為Iaoue。這名字按子音譯為Iabe也直接間接地為埃及論魔術的蒲紙抄本所證明了,而革利免所提出的形式也從那裏得到多少支持。這些蒲紙抄本屬於三世紀的末葉,但它們所根據的遺傳大概大概要回到第二世紀。關於較長的亞畏,是否從那較短的「亞」Jah,這是(出15:2:詩68:4等等所有的字;參阿利路-亞)和「雅呼」,(Jahu)而來,這在個人的名字裡可以見到,譬如以賽亞,原文是(Jeshajahu)。艾若德認為亞畏一名是由其他二名引申而來的,並且也是由希伯來動詞「是」來的。假如這種起源被接納的話,這字的意義乃是「那存在的一位」並不是指絕對存在的形而上的意思,而是指「那位臨在者」,就是隨時準備作幫助者。艾若德把亞畏之名的歷史與出3:14(從伊典而來)所載摩西從神接受使命的故事聯繫起來,並認為那故事足以為上面所說的解釋之根據。在出3:14節上,確是在亞畏一名字上玩弄字語,並且在那裏神對摩西說,「我就是「是」」。西乃山的啟示是以一個新名字做為開始點。這一新宗教的創立者-摩西-藉這種新而有意構成,藉以表明神與他同在的名字-亞畏-的權威,向百姓說話。

對神名字之歷史的這個學說,吾人的批評就是,我們很難相信摩西埃及預備要拯救以色列人的時候,他向他們所說的,是根據於他們所熟悉的神的名字在字面上的一點差別。既然「雅呼」形式沒有被那所假定的變遷所廢去,那麼這新的名字似乎被認為不足介意的。無論宗教和歷史上的任何大運動,通常都不是從字面上的些微差別產生出來的。再者,摩西五經的最老張本(即耶典)把敬拜耶和華放在人類的始初(創4:26),說挪亞求告耶和華(創9:26)和亞伯蘭為耶和華築了一座壇(創12:8)。耶典顯然不知道耶和華之名等到摩西時期才為人所知。羅德士(A. Lods)說,「至少有一件事似乎是很確定的,就是,這個名字並非如伊典和祭典所提示的,是首次在摩西時期出現。設若就是它真正起源的話,那麼這名字在希伯來文中必含有清楚的字義,為以色列人所記憶的。這名字顯然是一個很老的名字,因為它的意義已被以色列人所遺忘,所以他們較後試圖給它一個與他們宗教概念相符合的意義」。

當猶太人開始不用耶和華這名字時,便需要另有代替的名字,因此在猶太教中就出現了許多對神抽象的描寫。這必定是在被擄後幾個世紀中漸漸發生的事。在普通的談話中上帝通常稱為「這名」,與異教相對照時,上帝被稱為「活神」(參耶10:10;傳道經18:1;但6:20),「永生神」(以諾第一書75:3;禧年書12:29),「永恆者」(西比林神諭記111:10等等)。但以理稱上帝為「亙古常在者」(但7:9),這也在以諾書上好幾處出現(46:1-2;47:3)。「至高者」或「至高的神」(創14:18-19),特別前一個名稱用得最多。還有一名,伊勒沙代(El Shaddai),都是為文聖經譯為全能的上帝(創17:1等等)。在新約中除了林後6:18引用之外,全能的主之稱呼只在啟示錄中用過八次。那以「諸天」作為神的一個稱呼,是普遍的,並可在新約中看到。在路1:18和24:49我們找到「從上頭來的」,即「從神來的」的意思。

Cycling Culture in Amsterdam, Muenster, Osaka, and Melbourne

11th March, 2009, the day YouBike was born, being a cutting-edge milestone in Taiwan Eco-urbanism history. Youbike made cycling convenient, comfortable and safe as well with illuminating, anti-theft and EasyCard payment equipment. It was aiming to elevate the positive image as an international environmentally friendly green city, adding value to sightseeing in Taipei, improving the quality of life of the citizens and enhance their satisfaction, reducing use of motor vehicles and improve air quality and traffic environment, cultivating a trend of cycling and increase the number of cyclists and the most important, making Taipei the first and exemplar city for bike commuting in Taiwan. However, Taiwan was not the first country renting bicycles on the sidewalk. There are Amsterdam, Muenster, Osaka, Copenhagen, and Melbourne.

With over 51 per cent of the world’s population now living in cities and cities producing 75 per cent of the world’s greenhouse gases, it is increasingly clear that cities will need to pay greater attention to becoming more successful in producing liveable, sustainable and economically viable built environments. While the five factors outlined above are considered the major components for achieving liveability, they are also the key drivers for sustainability and economic viability.

In Amsterdam, most people travel by bike, and for good reason. In larger towns – with more than 10,000 inhabitants – a cyclist will on average reach his destination 10 percent faster than a car driver, according to statistics from the Nederlandse Fietsersbond (Dutch Cycling Federation). Plus it’s calmer, cheaper, you don’t have any delays or traffic jams to contend with and you get to really take in the city. Amsterdam people are well aware that cycling is the most efficient mode of transport in their city. More than sixty percent of journeys within the A10 Ring Road are taken by bike. That means 493,000 cycle trips per day. The recent increase in bicycle use has been at the expense of the car. It’s a scenario which didn’t look all that likely forty years ago. In the 1960’s wide arterial roads leading into the city centre were built. In the early 1970’s plans were developed to extend and expand this network. However, this led to large scale and violent protests, as the cycling Amsterdam people wanted to keep their city livable and safe.

Rozengracht, 4 June 1977. Thousands of cyclists take part in one of the large scale cycle protests held during the 1970’s.

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Photo: Nationaal Archief/Spaarnestad Photo/Anefo

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Main cycle network: Today the city recognises the importance of the bicycle as the most valuable part of its mobility. The Amsterdam cycle policy is based on four pillars: road safety; infrastructure; parking; education and promotion. Map: Physical Planning Department

Muenster’s bicycle network can be divided into a primary and a secondary network. The so-called primary network is a system of continuously segregated dedicated cycle ways running along main streets and traffic axes. Although the construction of the primary network was started in 1948, it has only been completed recently. The primary network has been supplemented by several measures to improve the general cycling conditions during the eighties. The secondary network complements the primary, and is a network of grid-like cycle tracks which include traffic-calming in residential areas, linkages of lacks in the prevailing network, cycle paths and connections in parks and pedestrian areas. The main functions of the secondary network are the distribution of cyclists from the central locations and the possibility to take different shortcuts thus reducing cycle times. A population of 280,000 inhabitants living in an area of 302 km2 is served by a 275 km network of segregated bike routes. These are supplemented by over 300km of agricultural routes, which are permitted for cat-traffic and stretch across the farming and forested regions of Muenster. The picture below provides a detailed view of both primary network (red marked lines) and secondary network (yellow lines and green lines) within Muenster’s municipal area. Additionally it shows where Bike & Ride(B+R) are located in that area.

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There’s something interesting in Muenster, Germany., “30 Zone”. In residential areas cycling is permitted on the streets. There segregated cycle paths do not exist since the width of roads is usually too narrow to provide sufficient space for all activities-driving, car parking, sidewalks and cycle ways. To calm down traffic within those areas, the maximum speed is restricted to 30 km/h. That is why they are usually called “30 zones”.

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Muenster did not become a bicycle friendly (fahrradfreundliche) city by accident. During World War II the city center was almost completely destroyed. In the reconstruction of the city after the war it was decided that bicycles and buses should be an important part of city traffic. For the past 50 years the city has continually worked on increasing bicycle use.

One argument those opposed to investing in bicycle lanes and paths in the United States use is that the lanes and paths will only be used during the day in good weather during the summer months. Thus, they are not worth the relatively large investment. The use of bicycles in Muenster shows that if the use of cars is discouraged and if well maintained and safe bicycle paths are provided, bicycles are used throughout the year, in inclement weather and at night. Muenster is located in north Germany where rain is common. During the winter it rains almost every day, but if one wears appropriate rain gear one stays reasonably dry. Also, the type of bicycle most commonly used in Muenster is not designed for speed or off road use. It is designed for city travel and to keep water spray off the rider. I found that typical speeds are 9 to 12 miles per hour (15 to 20 kilometers per hour).

When Taiwanese cyclists travel to Osaka, they may find it uneasy because they are restricted. Be considerate of pedestrians and local people. Under the Road Traffic Law, bicycles are defined as a vehicle. Bicyclists must follow rules and malicious violators and individuals who caused fatal accidents in violation of these rules will be strictly punished. Keep in mind that bicycles can be dangerous to pedestrians.

The following are rules for safe bicycling on and around the OU(Osaka University) campus. Cyclists should be aware that they are driving a vehicle so as to not cause annoyance to members of the general public living near OU as well as persons on campus.

Bicycle Regulations:

1.Maintain safe and reasonable speeds at all times.

2.Drive on the left side of the road.

3.The following activities are nuisances as well as dangerous. Please do not: park on the road, abandon your bicycle, park for an extended period of days, ride your bicycle in parallel to others, and/or use a cell phone while riding.

4.Riding bicycles on the Handai-zaka [Osaka University Slope] is banned.

5.As with motorized vehicles, bicyclists are requested to use official gates only for entering and leaving OU campuses.

6.Riding on campus sidewalks is banned.

7.Bicycle should be parked in an orderly manner in bicycle parking lots.

8.Prevent theft of your bicycle by double-locking it and putting a sticker with your name and address on your bicycle.

9.Riding bicycles on the Toyonaka campus is prohibited.

10.Be careful not to cause annoyance to members of the general public living near OU.

More people in Melbourne are cycling than ever before. Building on the achievements of the previous bicycle plan, Bicycle Plan 2016–2020 aims to encourage more people to ride and to create a safe environment for them to do so. The Bicycle Plan 2016–2020 incorporates a comprehensive program of actions on many of Melbourne’s busy bike routes and also provides a renewed focus on local bike routes to cater for neighbourhood-scale trips, such as those to schools and shops – making it possible for cycling to become a logical and easy choice for the community. More people on bikes means a more active and healthier population who are able to enjoy a cleaner and less congested city.

Melbourne has successfully used drivers over the last 20 years to turn its central city around; significant effort is still required over the remaining metropolitan area if the region is to remain viable in the changing circumstances brought on by climate change and the retreat of the fossil-fuel economy.

It is widely recognised that cycling has many benefits – ranging from social and economic to health and environmental. This plan is the next step in helping more people to enjoy those benefits. It sets out a series of actions that will help to deliver the targets for increased participation in cycling set out in Melbourne’s Transport Strategy2. The actions in this plan also include a commitment to work with and support the Victorian Government to develop strategic cycling corridors linking central Melbourne.

As the central city has increased densities, encouraged a greater range of mixed uses, built on its local character, improved connectivity and access for pedestrians, bicycles and public transport, and developed a high-quality public realm, it has become more financially viable and started to reduce its environmental footprint. Local rates and taxes have declined by over 50 per cent. Property owners in 1996 who had to pay 13 cents in the dollar on the value of their property are now paying only 6 cents in the dollar. The City has also set an ambitious environmental target of zero emission by 2020 and replacing street lightning with longer-life and more efficient luminaires and instituting extensive street tree-planting schemes, as well as by installing passive energy collectors . It has been paying greater attention to the design of its own buildings, including the design and construction of Australia’s first new six green-star-rated commercial office building, CH2.

Melbourne’s success over the last 20 years has been due to its ability to set a clear version with ambiguous but achievable targets and then put them on the ground. Where other cities have produced high-quality implementation programme. Using a strong tradition of in-house professional skills in all aspects of administration, it has mastered the art of successful partnerships and directed the resources of other levels of government and the private sector towards its version. While working from a modest financial base, it has consistently packaged up large and ambitious projects such as Federation Square, QV, Swanston Street, Postcode 3000 and, more recently, the environmental programme. It has also successfully brought on board key partners in the financing and ongoing maintenance of these projects. It has recognized the need for quality design and delivery and the importance of remaining a leader, rather than just a manager, in the art of city making. Its projects have received over 100 awards from architects, landscape architects and planning institutes, and its views and opinions have been sought both locally and internationally.

Just as Melbourne has manage to climb the ladder of liveable, it now needs to become recognized as a leader in sustainability. As an early member of the UN Impact Cities for Climate, a partner in the Clinton Climate initiative and a champion of numerous environmental strategies . It is already well on the way to achieving leadership status: As such, Melbourne offers an important case study of how a city can take control of its destiny and plot a course for the twenty-first century.

People on bikes crossing Princes Bridge at night (Photo by William Watt)

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Although Taiwan is still a developing country, but we have potential to change and make a progress. If we try to ride a bike to work instead of driving or riding a motorcycle, the air pollution can be reduced and we can enjoy better liveable environment. The responsibility of making our city better doesn’t belong to the government, but the whole citizen, as a matter of fact, if we make our city better, it will treat us better as well. When we stand together, that’s when we are the strongest. Like the old French saying goes, “savoir faire la ville, savoir vivre la ville”, means “Know how to make the city, know how to live the city”.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

City of Melbourne (1987) Grids and Greenery: The Character of Inner Melbourne, Melbourne: City of Melbourne.

City of Melbourne and Gehl Architects (2005) Places for People: Melbourne 2004, Melbourne: City of Melbourne.

Darko Radovic (2009) Eco-urbanity, MPG Books Group, UK.

http://taipei.youbike.com.tw/en/f31.php

http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/city-of-melbourne-bicycle-plan-2016-2020.pdf

http://www.osaka-u.ac.jp/en/guide/campus/campus_prep/bicycle_rule

http://www.geo.sunysb.edu/bicycle-muenster/#transportation

http://sutp.org/files/contents/documents/resources/C_Case-Studies/GIZ_SUTP_CS_An-Example-of-Promoting-Cycling-in-Cities_EN.pdf

http://thisbigcity.net/cycling-osaka-exploring-japans-second-city-by-bike/

20+ VPNs rated on privacy and security side-by-side

I have a small question , how did you rate VPN security? I mean , how safe can I trust one of the type ? Or how dangerous when I’m not using the one that’s not that safe ?

thoughts...

A VPN is now a necessity for anyone who values their privacy online. They prevent hackers, governments, corporations, and internet service providers from monitoring and tracing internet activity back to the user. All internet traffic is encrypted and tunneled through a remote server so that no one can track its destination or its contents.

https://www.comparitech.com/blog/vpn-privacy/best-vpns-privacy-and-anonymity

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What is Your Utopia ?

    Utopia  is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens. You could also say that utopia is a perfect ‘place’ that has been made so there are no problems. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia) We know that we all live for survival, but there’s a question,”Who decides where we are?” Our parents ? The government ? Or we do it on our own? I don’t know. What about the city we live in? Should it be created only by the government? Or the urban planner? Or we can build it altogether? If we design the urban planning on our own, listening to all walks of life, is it amusing? Yes. Is it desirable? Maybe. Is it important? I don’t think so. Why? Take economists and the aboriginal tribes for example, when we talk about maximizing profit and searching the equalty of marginal cost and marginal revenue, how can we do without making use of the land, building real estates like skyscraper?


    Why did city existed? In thousands years ago, our decendants hunted for meals and agriculture came into sight later. When people want to eat cabbage, they went to those who planted vegetables, so as to those who want to eat beef went to those who go hunting, we name this kind of act “trade”. Trade had to be done face to face in those days, so that all the people who desire to trade had no choice but to walk to the other’s house or somewhere else. When more and more people went there altogether and getting used to it, they went to a specified place, where we name it “market”. When there are more and more kinds of markets, sellers, customers and residents, the first “city” was born!

    With time goes by, we can easily find out most of the mega cities locate along coast. With such phenomenon, we can assume that they are grown up with the accessibility of shipment. Based on it, we design the city with the priority to access to the ports. With the need of venting, commerce, relax and the flood of cash, cities grow up faster than the other domestic cities. Furthermore, with the rate of crime climbing up furiously, restricting the activities in the city with efficiency and legality became important for the government. And that’s why we need wholely urban design.

    As a matter of fact, I dislike the word like “control” or “power”, which means the urban planners are forcing the citizens to do something or not to do something, so that I prefer “design” instead. When we talk about urban design, we ususally link it with zoning, which has been around us for more than 100 years.”Zoning” is like making a sandwich, which contains bread, tomato, cheese, beef or bacon…anything we like. In a urban planning image, we have commercial zone(C.Z., red in parts), residential zone(R.Z., yellow parts), public transportation zone(T.Z., white parts), industry zone(I.Z., brown parts)…etc. However, zoning can’t make the best use of land inasmuch as we can’t work for 24hours and live in one place all day long, so each part of land can’t be entirely used. Therefore, waste of space can be seen everywhere. To solve the problem, innocent ideas come into urban planners’ brain, which is vertical land use.  That is, we depart the usage of spaces in a building, for example, from 1st floor to 20th floor we use as commercial usage, 21st to 50th, high-tech industry zone where robots manufacture, assemble, and even diliver goods like Amazon, in which robots don’t produce air pollution and noise, 51st to 70th floor, public construcion, 71st to 100th floor, residential zone, so that we use the land 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. That’s my Utopia, would you tell me what is your Utopia like?

Picture Link: http://pic.mygonews.com/pdf/upload_newsPdf/7/e/9/9/774e8b47e558b63a9fafcb4799c264d2.pdf

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